Category Archives: EJ257

Turbocharger Terms and Definitions

Turbocharger Terms and Definitions:

The turbocharger terms and definitions used to describe turbocharger operation can be confusing.

Turbocharger Terms and Definitions:The turbocharger terms and definitions used to describe turbocharger operation can be confusing.
Turbocharger Terms and Definitions: The turbocharger terms and definitions used to describe turbocharger operation can be confusing.

Here are some definitions for common turbocharging terms:

■ Boost Threshold

Boost threshold is the optimum engine speed to produce exhaust gas flow to create positive manifold pressure (boost).

■ Turbo Lag

Turbo lag is the time delay between the point when the throttle is opened and the turbocharger boost reaches operational speed when the engine is running at boost threshold.

Many factors affect turbo lag:

Engine tuning status; the condition of the rotating components; operational condition of the control sensors and components; the presence of any air leaks in the turbocharger system; the control settings; and even the weather.

■ Boost Leak

When air (boost) is leaking within the turbo system or intake, it is referred to as “boost leak.” This may be caused by loose assembly of the components, a bad seal or a cracked component. Under such a condition, the turbocharger may not create enough boost pressure, or reach adequate levels.

■ Boost Spike

A boost spike is an erratic increase in boost pressure, mainly experienced when the vehicle is accelerating through the lower gears and the controller can’t adjust to the changes in engine speeds as quickly as would be ideal.

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Boost Pressure Influences

Boost Pressure Influences:

Several factors can influence boost pressure and affect turbocharger efficiency.

Boost Pressure: Several factors can influence boost pressure and affect turbocharger efficiency.
Boost Pressure: Several factors can influence boost pressure and affect turbocharger efficiency.

The key factors are:

Ambient Air Temperature and Pressure

As the air temperature rises, the ability of the turbocharger to compress the warmer air decreases. This phenomenon is directly due to the decrease in air density and the physical limitation of the turbocharger.

Even when the air temperature is low, the air density (barometric pressure or boost pressure) may be low. Under these conditions, lower than expected boost pressure may be experienced. The diameter of the exhaust system will vary the pressure differential across the turbine. A larger exhaust allows the turbocharger to rotate faster, which results in higher boost pressure.

Any increase in boost pressure would require “re-mapping” of the ECM programs to accommodate different air flow rates and resultant ignition change requirements. Over-revving of the turbine – trying to supply enough boost – can lead to turbocharger failure, particularly in conjunction with the increase in the pressure differential across the turbine.

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Subaru Turbocharger Explained Part 2

Subaru Turbocharger Explained Part 2:

Service Procedures

Here are some service procedures, including steps to properly remove turbocharger components, and tests and inspections you can perform to check component operation.

Subaru Turbocharger Explained: Here are some service procedures, including steps to properly remove turbocharger components, and tests and inspections you can perform to check component operation.
Subaru Turbocharger Explained: Here are some service procedures, including steps to properly remove turbocharger components, and tests and inspections you can perform to check component operation.

Intercooler Removal

You may need to remove the intercooler to work on other components beneath it. Removal of the intercooler must be performed carefully so that no damage occurs.

1.) Disconnect battery. Remove the two bolts that attach the bypass valve, then the valve.

2.) Remove the bolts from each end of the intercooler and disconnect the crankcase ventilation hoses from the intercooler.

3.) Loosen the clamps at the throttle body and outlet of the turbocharger.

4.) Gently move the intercooler side to side until the tension of the hoses at the turbocharger and throttle body loosen.

5.) Remove the intercooler from the engine compartment and cover the open areas with tape to prevent foreign material from entering, which could cause damage to the engine or turbocharger after re-installation.

Turbocharger Removal

1.) After removing the intercooler, remove the intercooler mounting bracket.

2.) Remove the eight bolts that secure the protective heat shield around the turbo.

3.) Raise the vehicle and disconnect the rear oxygen sensor harness, then remove the front exhaust pipe mounting bolt. Position the pipe so there is some movement.

4.) Lower the vehicle and disconnect the wastegate hose to the vacuum hose leading to the wastegate control solenoid.

5.) Remove the coolant hose from the reservoir that connects to the turbocharger.

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Subaru Turbocharger Explained Part 1

Subaru Turbocharger Explained:

Turbochargers are fairly simple in concept, but adapting the system to modern vehicles can be quite complex. This primer for those new to servicing turbos and review for veterans lays out the function and operation of turbocharging in Subaru vehicles.

Subaru Turbocharger: Starting with 2004 models, the WRX STi incorporates a water spray system to help cool the intercooler, thereby further cooling the intake air.
Subaru Turbocharger: Starting with 2004 models, the WRX STi incorporates a
water spray system to help cool the intercooler, thereby
further cooling the intake air.

The return of turbocharging in the 2002 Impreza WRX marked an absence of nearly a decade for Subaru vehicles. While the new generation has been around for half a decade, not everyone understands the function and operation of Subaru turbocharging systems.

Naturally, everyone knows these blowers are designed to get the maximum power out of engines by packing more air and fuel into the cylinders to get the biggest bang possible. Just how that is accomplished, however, may be a bit of a mystery to you. Here’s a primer on turbocharging and how it applies to Subaru vehicles.

Subaru Turbocharger Explained:

A Brief History of Turbochargers

Turbochargers were originally invented to increase the volume of air pushed into the cylinders of internal combustion engines, and, along with increased fuel, raise the level of energy produced by the combustion process

Historical references indicate that Swiss engineer Alfred J. Buchi adapted the turbines from steam engines to diesel engines as a method to improve air induction, and, therefore, smoother operation in internal combustion engines. In 1905, Buchi’s idea of powering the forced air induction by exhaust flow was granted a patent. Good idea or not, the fairly crude engines of the day could not sustain even or adequate boost pressures. Buchi worked another ten years before he could produce a working model of a turbocharged diesel engine. By that time, other companies had also produced turbocharging systems

The massive building boom of internal combustion engines to supply ships, trucks and airplanes for World War I saw technologies take a giant leap forward. The first turbocharged diesel engines for ships and locomotives appeared around 1920. Shortly thereafter, European car manufacturers began incorporating them into factory race cars and a few sporty luxury models.

The next milestone for turbocharging came with the military build-up for World War II, when turbo systems were fitted to fighter planes and bombers to allow them to fly at higher altitudes where the thinner air could be compacted into the engines to provide sufficient combustion. However, direct-driven superchargers quickly proved more reliable, efficient and more easily controlled, leaving turbochargers by the wayside.

It wasn’t until the mid-1950s when turbochargers started appearing on diesel trucks that modern turbos began to make a dent in the automotive market. Today, the vast majority of truck engines are turbodiesels.

When turbocharged vehicles began to dominate the international racing scene in the 1960s, car manufacturers began to use them in sporty models to appeal to performance-oriented drivers. By the 1980s, turbochargers for cars were a bona fide success, particularly in Subaru vehicles, due to improved metallurgy, intercooling and efficient boost controls.

The main components of a Subaru turbocharger system are a water-cooled turbocharger, an air-cooled intercooler, a wastegate control solenoid valve, sensors and a controller. Let’s review the individual components and the role they play in the system.

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LSD Mechanical DCCD Advantage Explained:

LSD Mechanical DCCD Advantage Explained:

LSD: Advantages of mechanical LSD

The mechanical LSD mechanism is advantageous in that it has good response of the LSD differential limiting force to the engine driving force and has direct vehicle operational stability allowing the driver to easily grasp changes in the vehicle behavior. This post discusses these advantages in comparison with conventional DCCD system.

LSD Mechanical Advantage: Controlling coil current based on driving force estimated from detected information. Time lag existent between a change in engine driving force and generation of LSD differential limiting force.
LSD Mechanical Advantage: Controlling coil current based on driving
force estimated from detected information.

LSD Advantage: The LSD differential limiting force exactly follows changes in the engine driving force.
LSD Mechanical Advantage: The LSD differential limiting force exactly
follows changes in the engine driving force.
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DCCD Subaru STi Explained

DCCD Subaru STi Explained:

The Driver’s Control Center Differential system is system that appropriately controls the differential limiting force of center differential LSD depending on running conditions of a vehicle. The DCCD system evolved provides controls that follow operations of the driver, while conventional DCCD system provides those based on conditions of the vehicle.

The system consists of a center differential of planetary gear type provided with LSD function, a steering angle sensor, a yaw rate sensor, a lateral G sensor, a DCCD control module and other components.

DCCD: The DCCD system evolved provides controls that follow operations of the driver, while conventional DCCD system provides those based on conditions of the vehicle.
DCCD: The DCCD system evolved provides controls that follow operations of the driver, while conventional DCCD system provides those based on conditions of the vehicle.

Hybrid LSD mechanism using conventional electromagnetic clutch LSD mechanism added with torque-sensitive mechanical LSD mechanism allows approximate coincidence between the vehicle acceleration/deceleration and LSD clutch differential limiting timings, resulting in linear LSD characteristics acquired through driver’s accelerator operation. Thus, the driver can more freely control the vehicle by easily grasping behavior of the vehicle.

In addition, the steering angle sensor let the DCCD control module know the driver’s intension of turning. In combination with the yaw rate and lateral G sensors, it adjusts the electromagnetic clutch LSD differential limiting force based on the running path imaged by the driver and the actual behavior of the vehicle. Thus, cornering in better accordance with the driver’s image is enabled, preventing occurrence of understeer and oversteer.

LSD MECHANICAL DCCD ADVANTAGE EXPLAINED

For balancing between the vehicle turning performance and traction during turning in a high order, the center differential driving torque is set to have distribution ratio 41:59.

 

DCCD: For balancing between the vehicle turning performance and traction during turning in a high order, the center differential driving torque is set to have distribution ratio 41:59.
DCCD: For balancing between the vehicle turning performance and traction during
turning in a high order, the center differential driving torque is set to have distribution ratio 41:59.

 

Manual mode switch/DCCD control dial

In manual mode, the DCCD control can be used to adjust the differential limiting force of the electromagnetic clutch LSD mechanism in the range from free to lock. Current settings of the control dial are displayed on the indicator in the meter.

DCCD: In manual mode, the DCCD control can be used to adjust the differential limiting force of the electromagnetic clutch LSD mechanism in the range from free to lock.
DCCD: In manual mode, the DCCD control can be used to adjust the differential limiting force of the electromagnetic clutch LSD mechanism in the range from free to lock.

 

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SI-Drive 2008+ STi Explained:

SI-Drive 2008+ STi Explained:

The 2008 Subaru Impreza WRX STI has a heritage of power and control. Previous models have been the foundations for countless racing victories and championships. The new WRX STI promises the same with it’s 305- horsepower, turbocharged, intercooled Boxer engine and a six-speed manual transmission.

SI-Drive: he new WRX STI promises the same with it's 305- horsepower, turbocharged, intercooled Boxer engine and a six-speed manual transmission.
SI-Drive: he new WRX STI promises the same with it’s 305- horsepower, turbocharged, intercooled Boxer engine and a six-speed manual transmission.

Power and control incorporate enchanced technology. As suggested by new switchgear on the dashboard and center console and my markings within the instrument cluster’s center-mounted tachometer, a driver has some things to learn before wringing out the most from the car.

Today’s electronics now allow the driver to tinker with engine response characteristics, the manner in which All-Wheel-Drive system fights for traction, and the degree to which braking and engine management help maintain vehicle stability. These capabilities are made possible by standard Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC), Driver Controlled Center Differential (DCCD), and Subaru Intelligent Drive (SI-Drive).

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Battery Charging Subaru:

Battery Charging Subaru:

Batteries low in voltage (below 11.6 volts) need to be specially charged. A battery at this voltage is heavily sulfated and needs either a very long, slow charge, or a very high initial charge voltage.

Battery Charging Subaru: Batteries low in voltage (below 11.6 volts) need to be specially charged. A battery at this voltage is heavily sulfated and needs either a very long, slow charge, or a very high initial charge voltage.
Battery Charging Subaru: Batteries low in voltage (below 11.6 volts) need to be specially charged. A battery at this voltage is heavily sulfated and needs either a very long, slow charge, or a very high initial charge voltage.

The battery should be left on the battery charger for at least two days. Since the acid in the battery will mostly be stratified, it needs sufficient overcharge to mix. Even after a two day charge, the battery still may only come to 60-80 percent of capacity and may need to be cycled to come to full charge. If possible, once the battery is fully charged by this method, it’s advisable to finish with a constant 1 amp for an additional 24 hours.

A battery that is below 11.6 volts can also be hydrated. This means there is lead sulfate in the separator that will form lead shorts once the battery charges. Because of these shorts, the battery may self discharge once the battery has been recharged.

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