The heart of any vehicle is the engine. It’s what makes it go. Anything that jeopardizes the operation of the engine can have disastrous effects and result in extensive repairs. If the engine is the heart of the vehicle, then surely the cooling system is the “circulatory system” that keeps the engine operating at optimum temperatures. If it doesn’t, bad things are going to happen.
Subaru engines are modern masterpieces of technology and precision. Manufactured of multi-alloy metals and exotic materials, these engines contain more components, weigh less, produce more power and torque and are more durable than the old iron engines of 40 years ago. However, even these high-tech engines can be damaged or destroyed by excessively high internal temperatures.
Though more energy efficient than ever before, the combustion of fuel and air in the cylinders that produces the power that propels the vehicle still creates an enormous amount of waste heat. This is carried away from the cylinders either by venting it out through the exhaust system or via the cooling system. If either of these systems fail to keep the engine at normal operating temperatures, an overheating condition occurs. Of the two, the cooling system is most vulnerable.
The cooling system can easily be contaminated or compromised by anyone putting the wrong products into the radiator or reservoir. Often, Subaru owners or service facilities that are not aware of the specific needs of the vehicle will put incorrect chemicals into the system. In fact, according to figures published by the U. S. Department of Transportation, coolant-related problems are the primary cause of mechanical breakdowns on the highway. Many of these breakdowns could have been avoided by the use of proper coolant and the right additives.
This is a simple overview on diagnosing knock sensor issues with your Subaru Impreza/Forester/Legacy/Etc.
The knock sensor is designed to sense knocking signals from each cylinder. The knock sensor is a piezo-electric type element which converts knocking vibrations into electrical signals. The electrical signal is sent to the ECM, which changes the ignition timing to reduce the engine knock or ping. For this system to work correctly, the knock sensor must first hear the engine ping. The driver of the vehicle may also hear a small engine ping. A delay of approximately 1-2 seconds is normal, depending on the fuel quality, engine load, air temp, etc. At this time, the ECM will retard the timing.
This function can be viewed on the Select Monitor RTRD mode. When the knock is eliminated, the timing is gradually advanced to the specified setting. If engine ping is heard again this process is repeated. This will continue until the knock sensor no longer hears the engine knock or ping.
Note: This is a normal operation of the knock sensor. Do not try to repair it.
The next page will discuss asking the right questions on diagnosing knock sensor failures.
Steering and suspension parts are a lot like the brake system components. Their proper operation is vitally important to the safety of the driver and his passengers, but it is very difficult to determine how long it will be before any of these components will require attention. That’s why an inspection of all steering and suspension components is required at 15 month/15,000 mile intervals. Changes to these systems may be too gradual for the driver to even notice, leaving it to you to ferret out and correct any wear or damage that has taken place.
We won’t cover all of the steering and suspension checks here. There’s too much variation between different Subaru models to do an adequate job. What you’re looking for is anything that reduces the original precision of the steering and suspension systems. Perhaps the steering has a little too much play in it or the shocks and struts don’t handle the bumps in the road as well as they did when new. Specific tests for the Subaru model you’re working on can be found in the service manual.
Check the power steering system for dampness or other signs of fluid leakage. The power steering pump reservoir is a good place to start. If the reservoir is low, the fluid has probably leaked out, as it has no place else to go. Approved fluids for the power steering system include Dexron II, IIE or III.
All late model Subaru four cylinder engines employ a “waste spark” ignition coil system. Each time the ignition coil fires, it provides a spark to two cylinders at exactly the same time. Since only one of the two cylinders is on the compression stroke when the coil fires, the spark to the second cylinder (which is on the exhaust stroke) is “wasted. ”
The ignition coil sits on top of the intake manifold and is divided into two halves. One half provides the spark to the number 1 and 2 cylinders, and the other half provides the spark to the number 3 and 4 cylinders. Instead of the familiar single secondary coil terminal, this coil has four secondary coil terminals.
Testing methods for this type of coil are slightly different from what you might be accustomed to as well. Using an accurate DMM, inspect the following items, and replace the ignition coil if it is found to be defective:
• Primary resistance
• Secondary resistance
Caution: If the resistance is extremely low, this indicates the presence of a short circuit.
Timing Belt and Water Pump Replacement Subaru WRX/STi:
Timing Belt and Water Pump Replacement is critical in keeping your Subaru WRX/STi in good condition and to prevent the valves from hitting your engine’s pistons.
10, 12, 14, 22mm sockets
Impact wrench or strap wrench (I used both on separate occasions.) Torque Wrench
Small metal ruler to measure belt deflection.
Drain pan and funnel for the coolant.
Lots of paper towels/shop rags.
3/8 socket driver (very handy.)
2mm allen wrench
allen socket for the right camshaft (6mm maybe?)
Refer to your owners manual for recommendations. Alternately, you can visit an auto parts store or online retailer for recommendations on suitable spark plugs designed for your vehicle. Major manufacturers are:
Who are the specialty spark plug manufacturers? These manufacturers make specialty plugs that have unique compositions or designs that claim increases over traditional plugs. They are listed for advanced users or those with interest.
b. Beru (specifically the Silverstones found here)
d. PREP spark plugs
e. E3 spark plugs
f. Pulstar plugs
What types are there? There are really three main types:
a. conventional nickel alloy (commonly referred to as “copper”)
Which type should I use? That depends on how often you are interested in changing the spark plugs. Conventional spark plugs generally last one year. Platinum or iridium can last, depending on manufacturer specifications, up to seven years.
What’s some good background spark plug information?
Materials: The three main types of spark plug materials are nickel alloy, iridium, and platinum. Copper can be used in the core all plugs.
All ground electrodes are made of nickel. The use of Platinum and Iridium, which are stronger, allow for much finer CENTER electrodes (the ground electrode is still Nickel). These finer electrodes do not quench the flame core as much as a conventional style plug. This increases ignitability, therefore increasing HP. It’s not a huge gain, but cylinder pressures are measurably higher.
Platinum or iridium can be used as a thin pad which is laser welded on the ground electrode (the “J” strap), this serves to increase the life of the plug.
In June 1995, to celebrate their winning of both the manufacturers and drivers World Rally Championship titles, Subaru in the UK released a limited edition run of two hundred cars (numbered 1 to 201 – no number 13!) prepared by Prodrive going by the name of the Series McRae. The main improvements over the standard model are:
Special mica blue paintwork
6.5 x 16 inch eight spoke gold Speedline Safari alloy wheels
The Cusco team have been campaigning a heavily modified STi with a rear drive conversion as required by regulations since the late nineties and having no two-door model available at present, the Super GT committee gave a special permit for them to race with a four-door model instead of a two-door one. The rear drive conversion rule was lifted in 2006, and since then they returned to all-wheel drive with a transaxle gearbox.
In 2008, Cusco’s Impreza won the first GT300 race in Sepang. It marked the first AWD car victory in Super GT/JGTC history. Even though they were having very impressive results(with 1 win and 2 podiums) that season, Cuscho announced that they would not participate in the 2009 season as they want \ The performance of Cusco was outstanding even though they were using a 4-door car, it later lead the Super GT committee to officially allow all 4-door model cars to participate the series. The Toyota Corolla Axio followed suit in 2009.