Tag Archives: XT

Cool Down WRX Turbo Procedure

Cool Down WRX Turbo Procedure:

It is not necessary to perform a cool down/idling procedure on Subaru WRX turbo models, as was recommended with past turbo models. “The current 2.0 liter turbo engine has a far greater cooling capacity and, coupled with technology advances, makes this practice no longer necessary. This explains why information about a cool down is not included in the Impreza Owner’s Manual.

Cool Down WRX Turbo Procedure: It is not necessary to perform a “cool down/idling” procedure on Subaru WRX turbo models, as was recommended with past turbo models.
Cool Down WRX Turbo Procedure: It is not necessary to perform a “cool down/idling” procedure on Subaru WRX turbo models, as was recommended with past turbo models.

The heat contained in the turbocharger begins to vaporize the coolant at the turbocharger after the engine is stopped. This hot vapor then enters the coolant reservoir tank, which is the highest point of the coolant system.

At the same time the vapor exits the turbocharger, coolant supplied from the right bank cylinder head flows into the turbo. This action reduces the turbocharger temperature. This process will continue until the vaporizing action in the turbocharger has stopped or cooled down.

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SVX POWER STEERING SYSTEMS PART 4

SVX Power Steering Systems on Early Subarus Part 4:

There are two model-specific systems available on SVX vehicles:

SVX Power Steering Systems on Early Subarus Part 4: The engine speed sensitive, or conventional belt driven hydraulic pump and pinion type steering system is standard equipment on the SVX.
SVX Power Steering Systems on Early Subarus Part 4: The engine speed sensitive, or conventional belt driven hydraulic pump and pinion type steering system is standard equipment on the SVX.

• The engine speed sensitive, or conventional belt driven hydraulic pump and pinion type steering system is standard equipment on the SVX.

• An SVX equipped with the SVX Touring Package uses an optional vehicle speed-sensitive system. This system provides normal power assist at low vehicle speeds for reduced driver steering effort, and reduced steering assist at increased vehicle speeds for increased road feel and improved engine operating efficiency. Both systems have many similarities with the Legacy system.

SVX Power Steering Pump

Both systems share many similarities to existing Subaru steering systems. Both use a belt driven power steering pump, although the pump housings are different in appearance.

Rack

A conventional power assisted rack with the standard Subaru lines and hoses is used by the standard system.

Oil Cooler

An oil cooler pipe has been added to both SVX systems. It is located in front of the radiator on the return side of the system.

Rubber Coupler

A steering shaft rubber coupler is used by both SVX systems to reduce road noise and vibration.

SVX Power Steering Pressure Switch

A power steering pressure switch is located on the outlet side of the pump. The switch monitors increased engine load during idle speed steering. The switch provides an input to the MPFI ECU, which prevents stalling by raising the engine idle speed. There is not an additional trouble code for the MPFI ECU.

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POWER STEERING SYSTEMS ON EARLY SUBARUS PART 3

POWER STEERING SYSTEMS ON EARLY SUBARUS PART 3

Cybrid Power Steering

The Cybrid Power Steering System was standard equipment on the XT6. It’s a computer controlled,
electric motor-driven hydraulic steering system, using a power-assisted rack and pinion assembly similar to the XT. This system provides improved steering feel and more precise power assist over a wider operating range. Fuel consumption is reduced because it requires less horsepower due to the electrically-driven hydraulic pump. The specific system used on the XT6 is quicker than other XT power steering systems, with just 3.2 turns lock-to-lock.

POWER STEERING SYSTEMS ON EARLY SUBARUS PART 3: The Legacy RS used in rallying used the early Subaru power steering system.
POWER STEERING SYSTEMS ON EARLY SUBARUS PART 3: The Legacy RS used in rallying used the early Subaru power steering system.

Cybrid Steering Components

The Cybrid Power Steering System consists of four major components:

• The Motor and Pump assembly mounted on the front bulkhead (firewall).
• A Steering Sensor located inside the vehicle at the base of the steering column.
• A Signal Controller located in the left rear quarter panel.
• The Power Controller mounted on the front bulkhead (firewall) to the left of the Motor/Pump assembly.

Motor/Pump Assembly

The Motor/Pump assembly is similar to a starter motor, since it has an armature, fields, and brushes which are serviceable. The electric motor drives a pump which is very similar in design to an engine driven pump. This combination replaces the familiar belt driven P/S pump assembly. The Cybrid System requires special hydraulic fluid to retain stable viscosity during cold temperatures.

Heater

The Pump incorporates an electric heater to warm the hydraulic fluid in extremely cold operating conditions, improving the steering performance. A thermistor type switch located on a bracket above the Motor/Pump assembly, senses the underhood (ambient) temperature and sends an input to the Signal Controller.

The Heater operates for approximately five minutes after engine start-up. The Signal Controller grounds the heater relay, which passes battery voltage to the heater. The heater relay is located near the motor/ pump assembly.

Note: The Heater only works when the thermometer signals an extreme cold condition.

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Steering Systems on early Subarus Part 1

Steering Systems on early Subarus Part 1:

Rack And Pinion Steering Mechanism

Subaru steering systems utilize a rack and pinion steering mechanism. As the pinion gear rotates, the rack moves left or right. Rack and pinion steering gives the driver precise control over the wheels. The simple, compact design is easy to service.

Steering Systems on early Subarus Part 1: The Subaru SVX used Subaru's early power steering system.
Steering Systems on early Subarus Part 1: The Subaru SVX used Subaru’s early power steering system.

CGR – VGR Ratios

Two manual steering racks are used in Subaru vehicles: a constant gear ratio (CGR) rack and a variable gear ratio (VGR) rack. The teeth on the CGR rack are equally spaced so the turning effort is equal throughout the turning range. The teeth on the VGR rack are spaced closer together on the ends of the rack than in the middle. The turning effort decreases as the turning angle increases so sharp-radius turns are easier to make.

Legacy and SVX Steering Racks

Several different power steering racks have been installed in Subaru vehicles. The racks used in the L-series, XT, Legacy and SVX vehicles are similar. All have a one-piece gearbox and lack the external air vent distribution tube found on the rack in pre-’85 and carryover vehicles. However, the XT rack differs from the L-series rack in several ways.

The XT rack is made of aluminum and has a different control valve. Different types of hydraulic seals are used in the two racks, and each has its own unique special service tool. The power steering rack in the pre-’85 model year vehicles and the Brat has a two-piece gearbox and an air vent distribution tube. It also has seals, service procedures and special service tools that differ from the other racks.

Rigid Steering Column

Three types of steering columns are used in Subaru vehicles: a rigid steering column, a tilt steering column and the XT and SVX tilt and telescoping steering column. The rigid steering column is found on L-series DL models, the Legacy standard model, and Justy vehicles. The rigid steering shaft does not tilt or pop-up, but is collapsible (a safety feature). The shaft is connected to the gearbox by universal joints.

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Overboost and Underboost Subaru common causes:

Overboost and Underboost Subaru common causes:

The common causes for overboost or underboost: This is a basic guide on the possible causes and some solutions to those causes of a overboost or a underboost situation in a turbocharged subaru.

Overboost and Underboost Subaru common causes: This is the layout of the stock turbo subaru boost control system.
Overboost and Underboost Subaru common causes: Turbo Subarus: Common Overboost and Underboost issues with Turbo Subarus.

Overboost:

1.) Decat + High flow induction –  Cure: Reduction of the solenoid duty cycle or alteration of restrictor size will help return boost output to its normal level.

2.) Split, poor fitting, or disconnected pipes – Cure: Replace or refit pipes, the pipes that will cause this issue are between the wastegate actuator, solenoid, and the turbo. Including up to the restrictor on the return pipe of the 3 port solenoid.

3.) Manual Boost Controller – Electronic Boost Controller set too high – Cure: Don’t be so greedy and back the boost duty/adjuster off to a safe level.

4.) Restrictor Pill not fitted / size incorrect – Cure:  Ensure restrictor pill is fitted (3 port) if so on a 3 port reduce the restrictor size and on the 2 port increase the restrictor size to reduce the boost to a safe level.

5.) Clogged 3-port solenoid: It is possible that the flow of air through the 3-port solenoid could be restricted between the turbo outlet port and the wastegate actuator port if the solenoid is very dirty (usually oil vapor from the intake system), this allows the wastegate to remain clamped shut longer than it should be causing a potential overboost situation. Cure: Clean with carb or clutch/brake cleaner.

6.)Loss of solenoid funcation: Although this is not bverboost it shows itself with very simmilar symptoms, its an interesting scenario. It is possible for the solenoid to fail or even stick shut while under boost. This will result in a rapid reduction of boost pressure to wastegate pressure approx 0.5 BAR. So if you were running at full boost 1.0 BAR for example and the solenoid was to fail shut it would feel just like overboost as the wastegate rapidly opens due to the solenoid blocking off the spill from the wastegate. Cure: Either clean the solenoid with carb or clutch+brake cleaner or replace the solenoid.

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Wastegate and Boost Creep FAQ

Wastegate and Boost Creep FAQ

What is Boost Creep?

Boost creep is a situation where your wastegate port is not large enough to allow the exhaust gas to bypass the turbo. What happens is the exhaust gas will choke the wastegate port preventing further gas flow through the port. Then, the exhaust gas has to take the path of least resistance which is through the turbine of the turbo. This will spool the turbo ‘uncontrolled’ beyond your normal controlled max boost level.

Wastegate and Boost Creep FAQ: A stock Subaru turbo with the internal wastegate and stock actuator.
Wastegate and Boost Creep FAQ: A stock Subaru turbo.

The turbo will be spooling past wastegate spring rate pressure even though the wastegate is fully open thus it is uncontrolled. The best way to check for boost creep is to connect the turbo outlet port directly to the wastegate actuator port and go for a drive. In 4th gear you should normally get a stable boost level of about 0.5 BAR, if you have boost creep the boost will hit 0.5 BAR and will continue to rise with rpm until you either back off or hit overboost fuel cut.

Boost creep should only be present on a turbo that has very little restriction. For example a fully de-catted and high flow induction. It’s been found that the fast spooling IHI VF35 is very prone to boost creep. The cure is to remove the turbo and enlarge the wastegate port. Then, fit a stronger actuator 0.75 BAR the reason for this is because you have made the wastegate port larger. The effective size of the wastegate plate acting against the exhaust gas flow is larger which allows the exhaust gas excert more force on the wastegate plate.

This in effect weakens the effectiveness of the actuator. Before the increase in size of your wastegate port the actuator would open at 0.5 BAR, after the increase the actuator would open earlier at 0.3–0.4 BAR. After these changes are made to the turbo either a boost controller or a remap (to adjust solenoid duty cycle) should be sought to control the boost to a safe level.

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Downpipe Turbo Subaru FAQ

Downpipe Turbo Subaru FAQ

Buying a aftermarket downpipe is a typical modification which removes or replaces the stock catalytic converter with a better flowing unit. It also increases the exhaust diameter for better flow.

HP gain is 15-20HP. This figure is highly debated as different manufacturers use different dynos with different cars with different levels of mods. It also varies because some downpipes use one high flow cat, while others are catless and actually extend far enough back to eliminate the 3rd cat as well.

I have an 06/07 WRX, is the downpipe the same? No. The 06/07 WRX has a unique exhaust in that it’s downpipe is both the downpipe and catpipe sections of the “older” exhaust. This means you must use a “long” downpipe to bolt up to the rest of your exhaust system. A full TBE will fit fine, but when replacing just the downpipe, you must use a long downpipe.

I have an 08/09 WRX, is the downpipe the same? No. The 08/09 WRX has a unique exhaust in that it’s downpipe is the same, fitment wise, as the Legacy GT. So if you have one of these models, you must ensure you state your model/year to your vendor or specifically request the “Legacy GT downpipe” for your car in order to assure proper fitment.

Which manufacturer is best? This topic is highly debated. There have been no reported consistent “bad” downpipes on the market. Obviously, there may have been bad pipes sold, but not enough to report as “bad” overall.

What downpipe metal material is best? Downpipes are made from mild steel and stainless steel (304 & 321). There is no irrefutable evidence that one material is better than the other. Obviously, corrosion levels are higher with mild steel (coated or otherwise). Article on exhaust materials.

Which downpipe construction method is best? Downpipes have 4 main construction methods:
1. Blank plate: Identical to stock construction with the wastegate portion completely covered.
2. Bellmouth: Completely open design.
3. Split bellmouth: Similar to bellmouth only with a divider inserted to separate the wastegate.
4. Divorced or Twin Dump: Separate exhaust and wastegate piping that connect further downstream.

There is no irrefutable evidence that one design is better than the other. The thought process is that the greater the separation there is between the wastegate gases and exhaust gases, the smoother the overall exhaust flow.

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