Tag Archives: 4EAT

Subaru Cold Weather And Driveability

Subaru Cold Weather And Driveability:

The Winter season brings cold weather to many parts of the country, and with it the traditional driveability problems.

Subaru Cold Weather And Driveability: The Winter season brings cold weather to many parts of the country, and with it the traditional driveability problems.
Subaru Cold Weather And Driveability: The Winter season brings cold weather to many parts of the country, and with it the traditional driveability problems.

Before you push the panic button on Subaru cold weather and driveability problems, remember:

• No vehicle runs as well when it is cold as it does when it is at normal operating temperature.

• You have been operating the vehicle in more moderate temperatures and has gotten accustomed to the way it has been running. Now it is colder and things are not working the same.

• Some areas of the country may be using gasoline blended for warmer temperatures. These fuels normally do not atomize as well in cooler temperatures.

• Oxygenated and reformulated fuels that are in use in many parts of the country are normally harder to ignite in cold cylinders.

• Many drivers get their gas at one station because it may be close to home or work. Question them about this and if this is true, suggest they try a different brand of gas. It may take a couple tanks before any improvement is noticed. Different manufacturers blend their fuels differently.

• The 4EAT has a temperature sensor in the ATF and the Transmission Control Unit (TCU) will not allow an up-shift into 4th gear until the ATF has reached a specific temperature. This 4EAT design characteristic may be interpreted as a driveability problem by a driver who is not familiar with 4EAT operation.

There are many reasons for Subaru cold weather and driveability issues during cooler weather. Spending a few minutes with your Subaru and look over the points listed above should eliminate misconceptions about the Subaru cold weather performance and driveability characteristics of Subaru vehicles.

 

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ABS 5.3 Antilock Brake System for Early Subaru Part 5:

ABS 5.3 Antilock Brake System for Early Subaru Part 5:

 

ABS 5.3 Antilock Brake System for Early Subaru Part 5: Beginning in approximately December of 1996, a new antilock braking system called ABS 5.3 was installed on Legacy vehicles equipped with ABS.
ABS 5.3 Antilock Brake System for Early Subaru Part 5:
Beginning in approximately December of 1996, a new antilock braking system called ABS 5.3 was installed on Legacy vehicles equipped with ABS.

 

Beginning in approximately December of 1996, a new antilock braking system called ABS 5.3 was installed on Legacy vehicles equipped with ABS. This system uses a Bosch hydraulic control unit and a Nippon electronic control unit. ABS 5.3 is a four channel control design which can independently control the front wheels and utilize select low control to control the rear wheels (a system which provides the same fluid pressure control for the two rear wheels if either wheel starts to lock up).

Although similar to other Subaru ABS systems, there have been enhancements to component operation and location. Diagnosis has also improved because of the ability of the 5.3 ABS system to communicate with the Select Monitor. The hydraulic control unit or HCU is located under the hood on the right side of the engine compartment. The size of the HCU has decreased by approximately a third from that of the ABS-2E system, used on previous model year vehicles.

The HCU controls brake fluid flow by utilizing eight solenoid valves. There is an inlet solenoid valve and an outlet solenoid valve for each wheel. Mechanically, the inlet solenoid valve is open during normal braking, and the outlet solenoid valve is closed. The HCU also contains a motor and pump assembly, which operates only while ABS is actively controlling the brake fluid flow–preventing a wheel lock.

Beginning in approximately December of 1996, a new antilock braking system called ABS 5.3 was installed on Legacy vehicles equipped with ABS.
ABS 5.3: Beginning in approximately December of 1996, a new antilock braking system called ABS 5.3 was installed on Legacy vehicles equipped with ABS.

Externally the HCU of the ABS 5.3 has a relay box attached. This allows troubleshooting of the valve and motor relay area to be kept separate from the troubleshooting of the solenoid valves and pump motor. There are four modes of operation for the ABS 5.3 system. They are normal, pressure-drop, pressure-hold and pressure-increase. When wheel lockup is sensed, Mode Two, Mode Three and Mode Four may be activated. They are described as follows:

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Antilock Brake System for Early Subaru Part 3:

Antilock Brake System for Early Subaru Part 3:

Damping Oscillations:

An additional benefit of this arrangement is that the mechanical valve damps out some of the unwanted oscillation in the brake pedal as the ABS pump runs. Because of this, the F valve used on the ABS-2SL system is no longer needed and has been eliminated from the circuit.

Antilock Brake System for Early Subaru Part 3: The Legacy RS rally car benefited greatly from having a superior ABS unit.
Antilock Brake System for Early Subaru Part 3: The Legacy RS rally car benefited greatly from having a superior ABS unit.

 

ABS Operating Modes:

To illustrate the four operating modes of this ABS system, we’ll assume that the ECU is operating only the solenoid for the right rear brake circuit. Recall that this circuit also affects the left rear brake circuit through the mechanical valve.

Normal Braking:

• Driver depressing pedal

• ECU passive (monitoring)

• Zero current in solenoid valves

• Pump off

• Plunger piston full right, pressure port open

• Master cylinder pressure supplied to all wheel cylinders

Pressure-Reduce:

• Pump pressure raising pedal

• ECU controlling solenoid valves and pump

• Full current in the right rear solenoid valve

• Pump running

• Plunger piston moves left, closes pressure port; system balances the two rear wheel cylinders.

Pressure-Hold:

• Pedal firm

• ECU controlling solenoid valves and pump

• Half current in the right rear solenoid valve

• Pump Off

• Pressure port closed

• Plunger piston is stationary, maintains reduced pressure in the right and left rear wheel circuits.

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Antilock Brake System for Early Subaru Part 1:

Antilock Brake System for Early Subarus:

A variety of antilock brake system (ABS) have been installed in Subaru vehicles since the first systems were installed in the 1990 Legacy.  In the sections that follow, we’ll give you a brief overview of each system and explain proper diagnostic techniques.

Antilock Brake System for Early Subarus: A Subaru SVX ABS system.
Antilock Brake System for Early Subarus: A Subaru SVX ABS system.

Antilock Brake System for Early Subarus:

Early Subaru Antilock Brake Systems:

The original Subaru Legacy Antilock Brake System (ABS) was licensed by Bosch and manufactured by Nippon ABS, Ltd. The system electronically controls brake fluid pressure supplied to the brake system. This control helps to prevent “wheel lockup” during braking on slippery surfaces and emergency situations. The system includes a fail-safe feature, which indicates a malfunction by illuminating the warning lamp. The system is then returned to a conventional power brake system. The four channel system provides accurate individual wheelspeed control and improves the directional stability of the vehicle during braking.

Antilock Brake System (ABS) Components

• Tone wheels (4)

• Speed sensors (4)

• Electronic control unit (ECU)

• Hydraulic control unit (HCU)

• G sensor (manual transmission models)

• Warning lamp

A tone wheel is attached to each wheel hub and rotates at the same speed as the hub. The magnetic speed sensor is mounted in the axle housing. The notched tone wheel acts as a reluctor which modulates the magnetic field of the speed sensor. The tone wheels are individually replaceable.

The speed sensor provides an alternating voltage signal to the ECU. The alternating voltage and frequency corresponds to wheelspeed.

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